Arterial Ischemic Stroke-Peculiarities of Clinical Presentation and Risk Factors in Indian Children

There are not enough recent studies on arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in Indian children. We retrospectively reviewed data on 95 children (69 boys), aged 3 months to 17 years, with AIS. Focal signs were noted in 84 (88%) with hemiparesis in 72 (76%). Diffuse signs were present in 33 (35%) with fever in 22 (23%), altered mental status in 20 (21%), and headache in 12 (13%). Seizures occurred in 29 (31%) children. Arteriopathy was observed in 57 (60%) children with mineralizing lenticulostriate vasculopathy (mLSV) in 22 (23%) being the most common, followed by moyamoya in 14 (15%), arterial dissection in 9 (10%), and focal cerebral arteriopathy (FCA) in 8 (8%). Preceding head/neck trauma was present in 27 (28%) children: 23 had minor head trauma (MHT), 3 neck trauma, and 1 unspecified. Other common risk factors (RFs) were iron deficiency in 10 children, homocysteinemia in 8 children, and tuberculous meningitis in 5 children. Complete or nearly complete recovery occurred in 42 (44%). Nine children developed epilepsy and five cognitive and language disability. Stroke recurrences occurred in nine children. Overall, arteriopathies accounted for majority of the cases of childhood AIS in our study with mLSV and moyamoya being the most frequent. Compared with data from Western countries, FCAs, postvaricella arteriopathy, and arterial dissections were less common. Of the nonarteriopathic RFs, MHT, iron deficiency, homocysteinemia, and neuroinfections were most frequent in our cohort in contrast to cardioembolic diseases and inherited procoagulant conditions, which are common in developed countries.
as reported in: Neuropediatrics. 2021 Jun 8 [Epub ahead of print]