Association of Dyskalemias with Ischemic Stroke in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Transitioning to Dialysis
INTRODUCTION Hypo- and hyperkalemia are associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, this association has not been examined in an advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. METHODS From among 102,477 US veterans transitioning to dialysis between 2007 and 2015, 21,357 patients with 2 pre-dialysis outpatient estimated glomerular filtration rates<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 90-365 days apart and at least 1 potassium (K) each in the baseline and follow-up period were identified. We separately examined the association of both baseline time-averaged K (chronic exposure) and time-updated K (acute exposure) treated as categorized (hypokalemia [K<3.5 mEq/L] and hyperkalemia [K>5.5 mEq/L] vs. referent [3.5-5.5 mEq/L]) and continuous exposure with time to the first ischemic stroke event prior to dialysis initiation using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS A total of 2,638 (12.4%) ischemic stroke events (crude event rate 41.9 per 1,000 patient years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 40.4-43.6) over a median (Q1-Q3) follow-up time of 2.56 (1.59-3.89) years were observed. The baseline time-averaged K category of hypokalemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 95% CI: 1.35, 1.01-1.81) was marginally associated with a significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke. However, time-updated hyperkalemia was associated with a significantly lower risk of ischemic stroke (aHR, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.68-0.98). The exposure-outcome relationship remained consistent when using continuous K levels for both the exposures. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION In patients with advanced CKD, hypokalemia (chronic exposure) was associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke, whereas hyperkalemia (acute exposure) was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. Further studies in this population are needed to explore the mechanisms underlying these associations.
as reported in: Am J Nephrol. 2021 Jul 21 1-9 [Epub ahead of print]