Different antecedents and neonatal condition in neonatal arterial ischemic stroke and hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy

OBJECTIVE To define similarities and differences between neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and hypoxic-ischemic neonatal encephalopathy (HINE). METHODS A retrospective case-control study was conducted of neonates born at 35 weeks or more and weighing 1800 g or more at a tertiary care university hospital, between 2005 and 2016, with NAIS (group A), perinatal asphyxia (PA) with Stage II-III HINE (group B), and PA with or without Stage I HINE (group C). Ante- and intrapartum data, neonatal characteristics, and placental histopathology were compared. RESULTS Eleven neonates were identified in group A, 10 in group B, and 227 in group C. Sentinel events occurred exclusively in groups B (80%) and C (41.4%). Umbilical cord blood gas values and Apgar score were worse in groups B and C compared to group A. No group A neonates required resuscitation at birth, whereas all group B and one-third of group C neonates did. Seizures developed only in neonates in groups A and B. One neonatal death occurred in group A. There were no significant differences in placental histopathology. CONCLUSION NAIS and PA/HINE cases have different intrapartum and neonatal features. PA does not seem necessary for the occurrence of NAIS. More research is needed regarding associated placental abnormalities.
as reported in: Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021 Jun 8 [Epub ahead of print]