Plasma Protein Profile of Incident Myocardial Infarction, Ischemic Stroke, and Heart Failure in 2 Cohorts
Background The aim is to study common etiological pathways for 3 major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as reflected in multiple proteins. Methods and Results Eighty-four proteins were measured using the proximity extension technique in 870 participants in the PIVUS (Prospective Investigation of Uppsala Seniors Study) cohort on 3 occasions (age 70, 75, and 80 years). The sample was followed for incident myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke or heart failure. The same proteins were measured in an independent validation sample, the ULSAM (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men) cohort in 595 participants at age 77. During a follow-up of up to 15 years in PIVUS and 9 years in ULSAM, 222 and 167 individuals experienced a CVD. Examining associations with the 3 outcomes separately in a meta-analysis of the 2 cohorts, 6 proteins were related to incident myocardial infarction, 25 to heart failure, and 8 proteins to ischemic stroke following adjustment for traditional risk factors. Growth differentiation factor 15 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 were related to all 3 CVDs. Including estimated glomerular filtration rate in the models attenuated some of these relationships. Fifteen proteins were related to a composite of all 3 CVDs using a discovery/validation approach when adjusting for traditional risk factors. A selection of 7 proteins by lasso in PIVUS improved discrimination of incident CVD by 7.3% compared with traditional risk factors in ULSAM. Conclusions We discovered and validated associations of multiple proteins with incident CVD. Only a few proteins were associated with all 3 diseases: myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and heart failure.
as reported in: J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jun 5 e017900 [Epub ahead of print]