Predictors and Functional Outcomes of Fast, Intermediate, and Slow Progression Among Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We aimed to delineate the determinants of the initial speed of infarct progression and the association of speed of infarct progression (SIP) with procedural and functional outcomes. METHODS From a prospectively maintained stroke center registry, consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients with large artery occlusion, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≥4, and multimodal vessel, ischemic core, and tissue-at-risk imaging within 24 hours of onset were included. Initial SIP was calculated as ischemic core volume at first imaging divided by the time from stroke onset to imaging. RESULTS Among the 88 patients, SIP was median 2.2 cc/h (interquartile range, 0-8.7), ranging most widely within the first 6 hours after onset. Faster SIP was positively independently associated with a low collateral score (odds ratio [OR], 3.30 [95% CI, 1.25-10.49]) and arrival by emergency medical services (OR, 3.34 [95% CI, 1.06-10.49]) and negatively associated with prior ischemic stroke (OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.03-0.50]) and coronary artery disease (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.10-1.00]). Among the 67 patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy, slower SIP was associated with a shift to reduced levels of disability at discharge (OR, 3.26 [95% CI, 1.02-10.45]), increased substantial reperfusion by thrombectomy (OR, 8.30 [95% CI, 0.97-70.87]), and reduced radiological hemorrhagic transformation (OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.12-0.94]). CONCLUSIONS Slower SIP is associated with a high collateral score, prior ischemic stroke, and coronary artery disease, supporting roles for both collateral robustness and ischemic preconditioning in fostering tissue resilience to ischemia. Among patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy, the speed of infarct progression is a major determinant of clinical outcome.
as reported in: Stroke. 2020 Jul 2 STROKEAHA120030010 [Epub ahead of print]